- (Bhumi )Namaskāraha
The act of prostration; In Bharathanātyam, a short sequence of gestures and postures performed as a ritual of obeisance before and after dancing.
- abbreviation for kural (1)
The meaning of lyrics of the song that the dancer dances to is conveyed to the audience with the help of hand gestures and facial expressions called Abhinaya
is a concept in Indian dance and drama derived from Bharatha's Nātya
Śhāstra. Although now, the word has come to mean 'the art(...)
It is a treatise on Bharathanātyam written by Nandikeśhwara in 2nd century AD.
A type of music
which is often used in practice or musical exercise. This includes the varisais, gīthams, swarajathis, jathiswaramsand also varṇams.
Also known as Prakruthiswara, it means a fixed note
without any variables or ornamentations. The two fixed notes
in Karnātic music
are Ṣhaḍja (Sa
) and Panchama (Pa).
A basic unit of dance technique in Bharathanātyam, combining standing position, foot and leg movement, and hand gestures. Aḍavus are the building blocks of the nruttha
, or abstract dance aspect of Bharathanātyam,, in which the movements are decorative and convey no meaning.
It means awe or amazement and is one of the nine emotions in Bharathanātyam, (Navarasa). The other rasas are Śhringara (love, eros), Vīra
(valor, heroism), Karuṇa
(laughter, humor), Bhayānaka
(revulsion), and Shāntha (peace).
A particular rasa
or feeling of surprise or awe in a song or rāga
Of low stature. One of the classifications of characters in Bharathanātyam. Others are Utthama
(divine) and Madhyama
It is one of the Śhiro bhedhas(head variations). It means to face downwards.
A posture in Yoga
resembling a dog facing downwards.
A common thāḷa
, which is chathuśhra jāthi
. It has 8 beats, with a chathuśhra laghu
(beat and 3 finger counts = 4) and then two dhruthams (beat and wave times 2 = 4). It may be also performed with double the beats per cycle, giving 16 beats.
- Ādhi thāḷa
It is the most common rhythmic pattern (thālam) with eight counts. The technical name is Chathurashra-jāthi
The 12th and last chakra
, with meḷakarthās that have Ma2, Ra
3, and Ga3, comprising numbers 67-72
the 12th and last chakra
, with melakartas that have M2, R3, and G3, comprising numbers 67 to 72
- Adhomukha Shvānāsana
Downward Facing Dog
- Afternoon rāga
to be performed in the afternoon between 1pm - 4pm such as mukhāri or begaḍa.
dheva is the God of Fire. In Hastha mudhrā
, it is depicted by holding thripathāka hastha in the right hand and Kangula hastha in the left hand.
It is one of the foot positions used in Bharathanātyam. In Sanskrit
, Agra means tip and Thala means bottom.
- Āhārya, Āhārya Abhinaya
It is one of the four aspects of Abhinaya
(the art of expression) that relates to expression through costume, jewellery, and make-up.
or decoration of a note
which takes the form of 2 consecutive notes
, such as Sa
Ri Ri Ga Ga Ma Ma Pa ...
The seventeenth century author of the treatise Sangītha Pārijātha. He was the first one to calibrate the value of swaras in terms of the lengths of stretched strings.
, it means lack of sluggishness.
- Ajapa japa
- Ājna chakra
Energy center located behind the forehead or between the eyebrows; state of intuitive wisdom consciousness.
Exercises in Carnatic music
where vowel extension "A" is used and all the swaras are sung in this vowel. In notation, akāra
is indicated by dots. For example, ‘Kā…mā…kshi…’ One may also use ‘e’, ‘o’, ‘aye’ and ‘hūm’ when singing.
Using the vowel 'aaa'... to sing rāga
or a musical phrase instead of words or swaras. One may also use vowels like eee, ooo, ayyy, aii, ohhh, etc. Ākāram is usually indicated by dots, ex: kā...mā...kṣhi...
Vocal practice, employing only the sound 'aaa'. This is done as part of the voice-culture exercises and results in richness of tone, timbre, clarity and strength of the voice.
It means Syllable.
The amount of time it takes for 1 akṣhara
or one swara
to be performed. So
PaDhaPaMaGaRiSa is 7 akṣharakālas.
, It means ornaments and adornments. In the context of Indian classical music
, the application of an Alankāra
is essentially to embellish or enhance the inherent beauty of the swara
or a note
. The earliest reference to the term Alankāra
has been found in Bharatha's Nātyaśhāsthra(...)
(1) - meaning a beautiful arrangement of swaras, it used to be a term for gamaka
in the times of Bharatha (from AḍukkuAṇi)
(2) - refers to the sapthaalaṅkārams, where the students are introduced for the first time to intricate thālas (SulādhiSapthathālas) and exercises in three speeds in(...)
It means a Fully Bloomed Lotus in Sanskrit
. In dance, it is shown by the following instruction: Spread all the fingers and slightly bend sideways towards the palm.
One of the forms in manodhharma sangītha wherein a beautiful picture of the rāga
free of rhythm is created by the performer in different octaves, starting from slow phrases to faster phrases gradually building the climax. Phrases used while rendering are Aa, Ee, Thanna, Thadharinna etc.
Usually the first dance item in a Bharathanātyam, recital, the alarippū
is a abstract dance item that begins with movements of just the eyes, and then progressively involves more of the body and increase the rhythmic pace. It symbolizes awakening, sanctification of the performing place, and(...)
A dance style, which uses solkaṭṭu swaras - it is a beginning piece, often the first taught to dance students. It allows for expert gestures and intricate footwork coordinated in a strict manner in a fast-paced performance. Typically, the songs have no actual words, only solkaṭṭus.
It is one of the foot positions in Bharathanātyam.
It is one of the Shiro bhedha
(head variations). It means that which is shaken. In this variation, the head is rotated in a circular movement in a clockwise and anti clockwise direction.
that is just touched and not stressed within a rāga
or phrase. For example, in sāveri, Ri is only touched in some phrases
One of the 13 lakṣhaṇas of a rāga
The second highest voice in Western harmony
means Temple; It also means a stage for performing arts.
One of the 13 characteristics (lakshaṇas) of a rāga
term for the sound (Nādha
) that is not heard except in the heart. Abstract sound which can be perceived by yogis and meditators. It is the opposite of ĀhathaNādha, which is the heard sound, or sound that can be perceived by human ear.
It is one of the Foot positions in Bharathanātyam. It means curved or arched.
word for one of the ten Gamakas (ornamentations) mentioned in the text, 'Sangītha Makarandha'. It produces a specific stress and emotional quality in the note
and consists of a long amplitude vibrato that bends the note
in relatively quick succession but not at a speed that would make(...)
- Āndhra Pradeśh
It is one of the states in the southern part of India. It’s capital is Hydherābadh and the language spoken there is Thelugu.
The major parts of the body, such as head, chest, hands, and legs. One of three groups into which body parts are classified for the assignment of movements. The others are the prathyaṅgas
or intermediate parts of the body, and upāṅgas, which include the extremities and facial features.
- Āngika, Āṅgika Abhinaya
The aspect of the art of expression (abhinaya
) that relates to expression through body movements, including hand gestures and facial expressions.
He is one of the leading composers from Āndhrapradeśh in Carnātic music
She is the Goddess of food. The temple for Annapūrṇa
is in the city of Kāśhi.
The highest of the 3 types of Ga - Ga3. It corresponds to E natural of the Western key of C.
A system where one person sings and a chorus of voices follow. This is often used in Indian music
especially with bhajans. Palanquin bearers, tribes of Africa, New Zealand, North America, and Egypt also use antiphony
The final and concluding section of an Ālāpanā.
One of the rhythmic patterns in Carnatic music
, consisting of a single beat. Denoted by “U” in the conventional shorthand.
A type of thāḷa
movement which is a single beat of the hand on the thigh. Its symbol is U. Considered a small (anu=small) dhrutham, it is equivalent to 1 akshara.
is a type of breathing technique. In Sanskrit
, ‘Anuloma’ means with the ‘natural order’ and ‘Viloma
’ means ‘going against’. This is also called the ‘Alternate Nostril Breathing Technique’.
below the mandhrasthāyi (two octaves below the middle octave
). Indicated by 2 dots below the note
The name given to the hushed Gāndhāra
that is heard when the Mandhra string of a thambūrā is tuned to the bass
tonic. This note
arises from the fifth
harmonic. It is also called SwayambhuGāndhāra.
Usually the second section of a song, after the pallavi and before the charaṇam, often of 2 lines
. After this, the pallavi is repeated. Since anu means small, this is like a small pallavi. Generally it is believed that the idea which is introduced in the pallavi is elaborated more concretely(...)
Graces or decoration of a note
. The small (anu=small, atom) anuswaras bring out the beauty of arāga. These can be better described as small inflections around a swara
to embellish it. The Rāga
gets its identity only when swaras are sung with gamakās and their attendant anuswaras.
All ragas have two pivotal Swaras, which are the Vādhi and Samvādhi notes
, while the other Swaras are neither. The assonant notes
in a Rāga
that are neither Vādhi nor Samvādhi are called its Anuvādhi notes
. They are often addressed as companion or attendant notes
, it means to follow. It is one of the driṣhṭi bhedha
(eye variations). The pupil quickly glances up and down.
taken from the scale of a different rāga
. Example: Ma1 in sāraṅga. Arāga may have up to three anya
swaras and no more. Anya
swaras are indicated by an asterisk Ma*. They are also called bhāshāngaswaras
One of the 13 lakṣhaṇas of arāga.
with a pitch that is poorly focused (false note
), or out of tune with respect to the ideal and true pitch (off-key note
). It has a jarring effect on the ears.
Rāgas which are uncommon or rare.
that is not in the sūḷādhi saptha thāḷa
system and that which uses the other aṅgas
, such as guru
A signature posture of Bharathanātyam, with erect torso, bent legs, knees outward, heels together, and toes outward. Also call ardhhamanḍali
It is one of the Asamyutha hasthas. In Sanskrit
, it means Petal/ bent. From the pathāka hasthā
, when the index finger is bent, arāla hastha is formed.
It is the most important position in Bharathanātyam. Here, the knees are bent forming oblong shape.
word meaning stage, raised platform, or island.
The debut performance of a Bharathanātyam, dancer, marking his or her readiness for performing a full solo recital. A Tamil
word meaning to step onto the stage, from of araṅgam
(stage) and éṭram (ascent).
A song or ritual performed with a flame and/or turmeric to drive away evil spirits. Ārathi
songs are usually in maṅgaḷa rāgas
It refers to recitation in one fixed note
. This is indicated for some passages of the RgVedha, where the entire hymn is to be recited in one note
The word ‘Bheka’ is derived from Sanskrit
, meaning ‘Frog’. This Yoga
pose is so
called because, when done, it resembles a frog. Another name for it is ‘Maṇḍūkāsana’ that has many variations. Maṇḍūka also means frog
It means Half Moon. It is an Asamyutha hastha and is indicated as follows: From the pathāka hasthā
, when the thumb is released and brought to a right angle, the ardhachandra hasthā
- Ardhhakampitha rāga
in which only some swaras can have kampitha gamaka
, ex: kunthalavarāḷi, compared to mukthāṅga kampitha rāgas
A signature posture of Bharathanātyam, with erect torso, bent legs, knees outward, heels together, and toes outward. Also call araimanḍi
It is the concept in Indian mythology where Shiva
and his consort Śhakthi are depicted as two equal portions of the body. The deity is the Lord who has both feminine and masculine traits.
It is an Asamyutha hastha. This means ‘Half a flag’. From the thripathāka hasthā
, when the little finger is bent, ardhapathāka is formed.
The ascending scale of a rāga
Ri Ga ...), consisting of 4, 5, 6, or 7 notes
The ascending scale of notes
in a rāga
is referred to as the ārōhanam.
- Ashtāṅga Yoga
- Aṣhtāṅga yoga
" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga
"). This eight-limbed concept derived from the 29th Sutra of the 2nd chapter of Pathanjali
sūthras is a core characteristic of practically every Rāja yoga
variation taught today.
It is a salutation where the eight limbs of the body touch the ground.
Literally "eight steps," this is a musical form, a type of sabhāgānam, also used in dance. Each has eight stanzas, plus one. The most famous is by Jayadheva and composed in devotion to Kriṣhṇa
Literally means "eight steps", from Sanskrit
aṣhṭa (eight) and padhi (steps), but refers to musical compositions with eight lines
. Popularly it refers to the Gita Govinda, 12th century compositions of Sanskrit
poems written by Jayadheva depicting the life of Kriṣhṇa
and Rādha and on(...)
It is a posture in Yoga
which resembles the movement of a horse. Aśhwa means horse and sanchalana means moving.
It is one of the states in the eastern part of India. It’s capital is Dispur(in Guwahati) and the language spoken there is Asomiya (commonly referred to as Assamese).
- Aṭa Thāḷa
path used in krithis which has 1 swara
or 1/4 māthra.
It is the same as anumandhrasthhāyi. (this nomenclature is used in the Dravidian or Thamizh tradition)
A viṣhamagraha in which the music
starts before the beginning of the thāḷa
(Also spelt as ateeta) For eg :Ninnuvinā – Poorvikalyāni – ShyāmaShāstri ; ChedebudhiMānura – Attāna - Thyāgarāja
It is the same as athithārasthāyi
(this nomenclature is used in the Dravidian or Thamizh tradition)
One of the sapthathāḷas, which has the form laghu
, dhrutham, dhrutham with the symbol - ||00.With the varying 7 laghus, this gives seven forms.
When the laghu
number is not specified, it is chathuśhrajāthiaṭṭathāḷa, which is laghu
(4), dhrutham(2), dhrutham(2), for 12 beats.
The graceful movement of the neck from side to side is known as Aṭṭami
. In Bharatanàtyam, Aṭṭami
serves several purposes including that of indicating time cycle as well as maintaining the tempo. It enhances the quality of both Nrittha and Abhinaya
set iṇ aṭṭa thāḷa
which usually has the same structures of other varṇams for example the pallavi, anupallavi
and mukthāyiswara in the poorvānga or first half and the charaṇam and chittaswaras in the utharāngam. The edduppu in most starts at the ring finger. This may be due to the fact(...)
Meaning 5, this indicates rāgas which use only 5 notes
instead of 7 in either the ascending or descending scale (or both), leaving out 2 notes
. Mohana is an auḍava
because it uses only Sa
Ri Ga Pa and Dha going both up and down.
- Auḍava rāga
The rāgas which use only 5 notes
instead of 7 notes
in either the ascending or descending scale (or both), leaving out 2 notes
are known as Auḍava
One of the 13 lakshaṇas of a rāga
dealing with whether it is an auḍava rāga
in either the ascending or descending scale.
Primordial sound; also known as ‘Om
It is one of the Samyutha hastha mudhrās in Bharathanātyam. When both hands held in alapadhma
are crossed at the wrists and placed near the chest, we get the Avahitha
It is one of the Driṣhṭi bhedhas. It is the downward gaze of the eyes.
- Avanāddha Vādya
Percussion Instruments covered with stretched skin, e.g. Mridangam.
The descending scale of a rāga
Ṇi Dha ...), consisting of 4, 5, 6 or 7 notes
One cycle/bar of the particular rhythmic meter or thāḷa
. For example, in ādhi thāḷa
in madhya laya
(medium tempo), one āvarthanam is 8 beats. Two āvarthanas are 16, etc.
It means to spread over. This is the most important position in Bharathanātyam also known as Aramandi.
It is the science of life. It is one of the systems of Indian medicine.
bAni means mould, but refers to a particular style of playing, characteristic of a pedigree of musicians, similar to the Hindustani gharana
- Baddha Koṇāsana
Bound angle posture
He is the elder brother of Kriṣhṇa
. Orthodox Hindhus consider him also to be an incarnation of Lord Viṣhṇu
, Bāla means child and Āsana
means posture. It is a pose in Yoga
resembling that of a child.
the 5th cakra
, with melakartas that contain M1, R2, and G3, comprising numbers 25-30
The word means Relative in Sanskrit
. In Hastha mudhras, we have specific gestures to depict relatives.
the lowest voice in Western harmony
refers to raagas which take swaras (anya
swaras) from raagas other than the parent mElakarta
. For example, saaranga takes a M1 which is not in its parent raga kalyaaNi. A raaga may take up to 3 such swaras.
- bhaashaanga kanDam
refers to a raaga or song's general expression, a collection of mood, tone, and the gamakas, which create a unique effect. In combination with prayogas, sancaarams, and other aspects of raaga, it allows two raagas to be distinct even when they have the same swaras in their scales, ex:(...)
- Bhāgavatha Meḷam
• A group form of dance drama from Tamil
Nadu, with all roles performed by men, and themes based on mythology. The tradition of Bhagavata Mela
natakams of Tamil
Nadu employed the art of music
and dance in rich flavour using themes from "Srimad Bhāgavatam" and other "Purāṇams" to extol the(...)
Also called Bhāgavatha Purāṇa
or Śhrimad Bhāgavatham
. An ancient Hindu scripture in which stories of the incarnations of Viṣhṇu
are told, eliciting bhakthi
or loving devotion to Viṣhṇu
as the Supreme being.
The word is used to denote God in Sanskrit
one of the 13 lakshaNas of a raaga
Another form of Pārvathi or Śhakthi, the consort of Lord Śhiva
. It is also the name of a rāga
in Carnātic music
a devotional song, often sung in groups and in religious settings.
- Bhajana / Bhajan
A devotional song often sung in groups and in religious settings.
word meaning devotion. In Hinduism or Bharathanātyam, refers to loving devotion to a particular deity. A high form of spiritual expression emphasized in Bharathanātyam, by Rukmini Devi.
, or feeling, of devotion to a god portrayed in songs or raagas, usually. Most Carnatic
songs have bhakti rasa
- Bharatha muni
The name of the sage who wrote the text named Nātyaśhāsthra.
- Bhasthrika Prāṇāyāma
Bellows breathing technique
The art of expression, the outer manifestation of an inner experience. Bhāva
is a key feature of Bharathanātyam.
, or feeling, of fear in songs or raagas, shown in raagas such as punnaagavaraaLi
Fear, one of the nine emotions in Bharathanātyam. The others are Śhringāra (love, eros), Vīra
(valor, heroism), Karuṇa
(sadness), Adhhbhutha (awe, amazement), Raudhra
(laughter, humor), Bībhathsa
(revulsion), and Shāntha (peace).
It means variations in Sanskrit
In dance it indicates the various eye, neck, head and hand movements.
A mythical two headed eagle.
It means Bee. It is also one of the prāṇāyāma
where Musicians are recommended to practice. Bhramari
also means whirling around. In Bharathanātyam, the Bhramari Aḍavu
is also called the Suttru aḍavu
. The body in this Aḍavu
swirls round with the help of one foot while the other rests on the(...)
- Bhramari Prāṇāyāma
Breathing softly that sound like ‘Humming bee’
The word means a Serpent/Cobra in Sanskrit
. In Yoga
we have a pose resembling a cobra and it is called Bhujaṅga
This word refers to the Earth in Sanskrit
- a rasa
, or feeling, of disgust in songs or raagas, shown in raagas such as aThaaNaa
Revulsion, one of the nine emotions in Bharathanātyam. The others are Śhringāra (love, eros), Vīra
(valor, heroism), Karuṇa
(sadness), Adhhbhutha (awe, amazement), Raudhra
(fear)and Shāntha (peace).
The round (dot
shaped) mark worn on the forehead in India by girls and women, mostly Hindhus.
The god of creation; One of the Hindhu
trinity of Gods.
Also Brāhmaṇa. In ancient India, one who attained highest spiritual knowledge. One with suitable traits for spiritual advancement. After the caste system came into being, one who was born in the Brahmin
or priestly caste. More recently associated with educated classes of society.
a type of moorcanai gamaka
, in which the aarOhana and avarOhana are combined and sung VERY fast
The preceptor of the Gods. Bṛuhaspathi is the name for the planet Jupiter, which is one of the Navagraha
(the nine planets). He is also known as Guru
The founder of the sect known as Buddhism; accepted later as one of the Avathāras of Viṣhṇu
It indicates Intellect, Intelligence in Sanskrit
a group of taaLas which traditionally consisted of a beat and a wave. It can be in counts of 3, 5, 7, or 9. The most common is mishra caapu
(3+4=7 beats, takiTa takadimi), and khanDa caapu
(2+3=5, taka takiTa) is also used occasionally. When no number is specified it is mishra caapu
a grouping of the melakarta
raagas into groups of six raagas. They are grouped according to which combination of ri and ga they have. Within a cakra
, the first raaga has D1 and N1, the second has D1 and N2, the third
has D1 and N3, the fourth has D2 and N2, the fifth
has D2 and N3, and the(...)
literally meaning "foot," it is the root of the song (which is like a tree). This is the end section of a song, sung after the pallavi and anupallavi
. A song may have multiple caraNas. In songs which have no anupallavi
, there is often a samaashTi caraNa
, which combines the two
- caraNam swaras
another name for citta swaras in a varnam
pronounced kar-naa-tik, it is the South Indian form of classical music
meaning the little shruti, this is lower than satshruti but higher than shudda types of ri and da.
- catshruti dhaivatam
this is D2, the second of the 3 types of da. It corresponds to A natural of the Western key of C.
- catshruti rishabam
this is R2, the second of the 3 types of ri. It corresponds to D natural of the Western key of C.
- catush kalai
of 4, where there are 4 swaras per kriyaa
a unit of relative frequency, used to show relative pitches of notes
another name for the swaroopam
of a raaga, but which describes the general sound or look of a raaga (its character)
raagas in which you can find the chaaya
of another (one other) raaga at times, such as sowraashTram which may have the chaaya
of cakravaakam, or saaranga, which may have the chaaya
means Discus. It is one of the Samyutha hasthas in Bharathanātyam. When the palms holding the ardhhachandra mudhrā
touch each other vertically and horizontally, we get the chakra mudhrā
. The right palm is vertically held and the left palm is horizontally placed over it.
, it means Fan. Lord Ganapathi has ears resembling a fan or as broad as a fan.
, Chandhrakala means ‘The crescent moon’.
One of the qualifiers with which a thāḷa
or rhythmic meter is identified. Chāpu
corresponds to the number of beats in the laghu
, and is also known as jāthi
The Chāris are the movements of the legs and feet. It is one of the important components of aḍavus.
, it means clever. It also indicates the four sides, a square. It is a single hand gesture. When the thumb in mrgaśhīrṣha hastha, is held at the base of the Index, middle and ring fingers we get the chathura
- Chathuraṅga dhanḍāsana
means four, Aṅga
means limbs; Dhanḍa means rod or staff and Āsana
means posture. In Yoga
it is a pose resembling the plank.
- Chathuraṅga Dhaṅdāsana
Four-Limbed Staff Posture
This refers to the number 4. Chathushra jāthi
refers to 4 beats in the Laghu
of a thālam.
- Chauka kāḷa
- Chauka varṇa
is a major pilgrimage site (240 kms south of Chennai) for Śhaivites as well as Vaiṣhṇavites, where one of the holiest and most ancient temples of Hinduism, the Chidhambaram
temple is located. Chidhambaram
is the birthplace of the sculpture and bronze image representation of Śhiva
- Chin Mudhra
Chin means consciousness; Mudhra
means hand gesture; Hand gesture commonly used in Prāṇāyāma
- Chinna Méḷam
Another name for Sadhir Nāṭyam, combining the Tamil
words, chinna (small) and méḷam (performance)
Chola dynasty is one of the main dynasties that ruled South India. Under Rajaraja Choḷa
I and his son Rajendra Choḷa
I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-east Asia. The Choḷas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil
literature and their(...)
- chromatic scale
a Western musical scale, which uses ALL the swarastaanas. It usually begins at C and has the following note
sequence: C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C (backwards in the descending), and would be equivalent to a scale in Carnatic
that was: s r1 r2 g2 g3 m1 m2 p d1 d2 n2 n3 S
- citra maargam
path which uses 8 swaras or 2 maattirais
- citratama maargam
- citratara maargam
- citta pallavi
- citta swara
a section of swaras set in taaLa
sung after the anupallavi
before singing the pallavi and again after the caraNam
. In a varnam
, many citta swaras are sung only after the caraNam
, usually with the form that the 1st and 2nd take 1 aavartanam, the 3rd and 4th take 2, and the 5th take 4 (also(...)
indicated 1/4 eDuppu
or one aksharakaala. Thus if srgm becomes s,rg then sa
is extended from one to two counts
- cowka kaala
- cowka varnam
- da (1)
- da (2)
which involves jumping from one note
to another, ex: sg rm gp md pn dS
- daaTu varisai
a series of phrases for singing and playing for early music
practice, which uses daaTu
combinations, in a jumping or non regular fashion. It is also called taanDu varisai
- daivika kOmali
- dakshina maargam
path that is equal to 32 swaras or 8 maattirai
, used only in pallavi
A type of drum that is narrow in the middle and wide at the ends.
- Damaru yati
a type of rhythmic pattern of swaras or words resembling a Damaru, a type of drum that is narrow in the middle and wide at the ends. It is a combination of srotovaaha and gOpucca yati
. ex: sndp-ndp-dp-p-dp-ndp-sndp, or srgrsrsrgm (matya taaLa
This refers to a type of rhythmic pattern of swarās or words resembling a Ḍamaru
, a type of drum that is narrow in the middle and wide at the ends. In carnatic music
, an example of the Damaru Yathi
is: sndp-ndp-dp-p-dp-ndp-sndp, or srgrsrsrgm. In Bharatanātyam, an example is : thei thei(...)
combination, the second mela
in any cakra
having D1 and N2
a particular type of musical form (sabhaa gaanam
), which relates a historical or puranic incident or ancient story, expressing love or the greatness of a generous person. It is often in madhyama
kaalam, with pallavi, anupallavi
(not always), and more than on caraNam
, with a mixture of jatis.(...)
- dasavida gamaka
10 forms of gamaka
, listed here
swaras that are often long and extended (with a comma
) in a raaga, such as ri and ma in aarabi, often corresponding to the jeeva
originally a taaLa
with 3 beats and a wave, this is now performed as aadi taala
which begins after 1/2 beat
- dEsya (1)
a raaga whose swaroopam
is brought out by just aalaapanai, for example kaanaDaa, hameer kalyaaNi, hindustaani
- dEsya (2)
raagas that were brought to South India from North India, for example paras, maanD, jhinjoTi, and shenjuruTTi
is an aspect of Śhiva
as a guru
(teacher) of all type of knowledge, particularly the Gnyāna. This aspect of Śhiva
is his personification as the supreme or the ultimate awareness, understanding and knowledge. This form represents Śhiva
in his aspect as a teacher of yoga
- Dhāru varṇa
It is interspersed with Jathis. The style is lively and sung in Madhyama
kala. It is most suitable for dance performances. A famous example for this type of Varnam
is “Māthe malayadhhwaje pānḍya…” in Rāga
, dasha means ten and avathāra means incarnation. The scriptures speak of the Dhasha Avathārās of Viṣhṇu
- different incarnations that were taken by Viṣhṇu
at various stages of human evolution. The “Dashāvathāra”, the ten incarnations are meant to re
- Dhāsi Āṭṭam
The dance of the dhevadhāsis or the servants of God. In Tamil
, āṭṭam means dance.
- Dhāṭṭu varisai
It is a series of phrases for singing and playing for early music
practice, which uses dhāṭṭu (gamaka
) style swara
combinations, in a jumping or non regular fashion. This refers to one of the initial exercises taught in music
wherein the notes
in the phrases jump in an irregular fashion. This(...)
They are the female servants of the deity. Girls dedicated to dance in front of the deity in the temples of South India were called Dhevadhāsis.
The song of the gods is the literal meaning of the word Dhevaranama. It refers to the group of compositions made in lucid style in Kannada
by the devotional saints of Karnataka, mainly the Dhāsa
saints like Purandharadhāsa
, Kanakadhāsa and others.
It means the abode of the Goddess/God in Sanskrit
, Dhevatha means Goddess/God. In Bharatanatyam, Dhevatha hasthas are the hand gestures depicting gods and goddesses.
A men's garment consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth tied around the waist, covering the legs. There are various ways to tie it.
, it means vision. In Bharathanātyam, Dhruṣhṭibhedha is the variations in the eye movements which are seven in number.
This is one of the angās of a thālam. Dhrutham refers to the beat and wave of the hand. The symbol ‘0’ is used to denote it.
- Dhruva thāḷa
She is another form of Goddess Pārvathi; She is a symbol of strength.
- Dhwi Sthāyi
Literally translated this means ‘two octaves’. In Carnatic music
, there are some exercises where two octaves are covered.
combination, the fourth mela
in any cakra
having D2 and N2
the 10th cakra
, which uses M2, R2 and G2, comprising melas 55-60
- Divine Art
is often referred to by this term because it is considered linked to God
- divya prabhandam
- Dola hastha
, Dola means Swing. When the inner palm of the Pathāka
Mudrā is placed to the sides of the thigh we get the dōlā hasthā
. The most important aspect of this is how the elbows are held. Keep the shoulders and the mudhrās relaxed.
- druta laya
a fast, quick speed or tempo
movement which includes a beat and a wave (or a beat with the palm and a beat with the back of the hand), counting for 2 beats
combination, the sixth (and last) mela
in any cakra
having D3 and N3
swaras that are not good to lengthen or dwell upon in a raaga, for example ga in aarabi
- durita kaala
this is the 2nd speed or kaala
, which can hold half the number of swaras of the same speed as in 1st kaala
if the taaLa
is changed. Since the taaLa
is held constant within a song, when one changes from madhyama kaala
to durita kaala
, double the number of swaras will be sung because they are(...)
- dwi kalai
- dwitiya pancaka raaga
a type of ghana raaga
, including raagas such as kEdaaram, naaraayaNa gowLa, saaranga naaTTai, bowLi, and reeti gowLa
- early morning
the place in a taaLa
from which a song or a line or phrase from a song is begun. Songs may take sama eDuppu
, starting at the beginning of the cycle, or (vishama graham
) start a few swara
counts (usually 2, 4, or 6) before (atita) or after (anaagata) the start of the taaLa
cycle. A comma
- Eka kalai
- Eka Pādha
One - legged Posture
- Eka thāḷa
This is one of the Saptha Thāḷās. Éka thālam has the anga Laghu
(1). Chathushra Jāthi
Éka Thāḷam consists of 4 beats. The number of beats in the thālam will vary according to the Laghu
Exercises in Carnatic music
where vowel extension "E" is used and all the swaras are sung in this vowel.
- equal temperament
word meaning ascent, climbing, or to step on to.
Eṭṭu means to reach out. This set of Aḍavus gets its name from the movements of the hands and the body. There are 3 variations of Ettaḍavu.
- ettukaaDi pallavi
- ettukaaDi swaras
another name for the cittai swaras of a varnam
- evening raaga
raaga suitable for singing at the end of the day in the evening (4-7 pm), such as shhanmugapriyaa, kalyaaNi, aananda bhairavi
, vasantaa, naaTTai kurinji, and poorvi kalyaaNi
a term for god as the incarnation of sounds, as is often considered
in the Western do re mi
, the 4th note
, equivalent to ma
- first speed
the 1st kaala
, usually using 1 swara
per beat in musical practice. However, it may use more swaras per beat (usually 4 in concerts and for kritis), thus changing subsequent speeds (each successive number doubles the number of swaras per beat)
raagas meant to be sung before noon, from 9am up to noon, including such raagas as asaavEri, saavEri, and dEva manOhari
- fourth speed
the 4th kaala
, usually using 8 swaras per beat in musical practice (32 in concerts). If first kaala
uses 4 swaras per beat, for example, 4th speed uses 32 in relation)
- ga (1)
- ga (2)
a shake or oscillation of a note
, also known as bending the pitch. It is a deliberate decoration of wavering of a note
to add grace and beauty. There are over 10 types of gamaka
, listed here
They are the attendants of Lord Śhiva
He is the elephant faced God, the son of Lord Śhiva
and Pārvathi and the remover of obstacles.
This is the 3rd note
in the Saptha Swarā scale. This is of 3 types: Śhuddha Gāndhāram, Sādhāraṇa Gāndhāram and Anthara Gāndhāram.
They are semi divine beings, who are well versed in the art of music
It is an important foot position in Bharathanātyam
It is a pose in yoga
which resembles the eagle.
The number of counts per beat of a thāḷa
. Also called naḍai
. Each beat may be divided into 3, 4, 5, 7, or 9 counts (default is 4), with the names Thiśhra, Chathuśhra, Khanḍa
, Miśhra, and Sankīrṇa, respectively, for the gathi
the gait, or the number of subdivisions or swaras per beat. There are 5 types: tishra
, catushra, kanDa, mishra
, and sankeerna
. It may also take 11, 8, etc. and is formed by taking the beat and multiplying by the number (ex: aadi taaLa
in catushra gati
is 8 times 4 = 32 beats). Not to be(...)
an abhyaasa musical form or "song" considered the simplest musical form, created by Purandara Daasa in order to introduce taaLas in combination with lyrics. Geetams have no absolutely defined divisions of pallavi, anupallavi
though these may be observed in many cases. Geetams last(...)
language, it means anklet.
- ghana pancaka raagas
one type of ghana raaga
(as opposed to dwitiya pancaka raagas), which is heavy and elaborate. It has five members: naaTTai, gowLa, aarabi, shree, and varaaLi. These 5 raagas are often used in pancaratna
- ghana raaga
a heavy and important raaga, in which the swaroopam
is brought out by taanam
) or madhyama
kaalam. They can be ghana pancaka or dwitiya pancaka raagas
raagas meant to be sung at a particular time of day. Each raaga is associated with at least one time of day (some are sarvakaalika - any time). The times are early morning
(4-6am), morning after sunrise (6-9am), forenoon
(9am-12pm), midday (noon-1pm), afternoon (1-4pm), evening (4-7pm), and(...)
literally "house," this is the house of the musician-teacher and his style of performing, in Hindustani music
term for a dancer's ankle bells. Also called Salangai
. The sounds produced by the anklet vary greatly depending on the metals used and their size. Ghungrus are worn in the performances of Indian classical dances and theatre forms.
This is considered the simplest musical form. Gīthams fall under the Abhyāsa
Gānam category. Gīthams were created Purandhara Dhāsa
. Gīthams have no absolutely defined divisions of pallavi, anupallavi
or charanam though these may be observed in many cases. Gīthams have around 10-12 āvathanams.(...)
- Go Mukha
means cow and mukha
means face. Gomukhasana is one of the postures in yoga
. It resembles the face of the cow.
cow's face posture
- gOpucca yati
a rhythmic pattern or swaras or words meaning cow's tail (go
=cow), which has a broad beginning and narrows at the end. For example: pera bhayam, abhayam, bhayam
This refers to rhythmic patterns, swaras or words which are broad in the beginning and constantly narrow down like that of a cow’s tail. An example of Gōpucha Yathi
is ‘Pérabhayam Abhayam Bhayam’.
- graha bEdam
the act of shifting the tonic note
) to another shruti (another note
) in the middle of a song. It is usually done briefly to show the ability of one raaga to become another by this shift but is not done for long enough periods that the audience forgets the original raaga. Also, the gamakas(...)
- graha swaras
these are swaras with which a kriti
in a certain raaga may begin. For saavEri, for example, a song or section of a song may begin on sa
, pa, or da (rarely, ga as well)
1. In Sanskrit
, it means remover of darkness or ignorance. Guru
means a teacher.
2. In music
- this is a Thāḷa
movement which has the symbol 8 and has eight beats. It is formed by a beat of four counts and a wave of the hand for 4 counts (or by a sarpini, making a looping eight with the(...)
- guru (1)
this is a taaLa
movement which has the symbol 8 and has eight beats. It is formed by a beat of four counts and a wave of the hand for 4 counts (or by a sarpini, making a looping eight with the hand horizontally)
- guru (2)
a teacher of music
or any other learning
A system of schooling in ancient India in which the students live with, or near the teacher. From Sanskrit guru
(teacher) and kula (extended family).
- gurukula vaasam
the system in which students of music
(or any other learning) stayed with their guru
to learn, rarely in wide practice today with the advent of music
schools and easy transportation
A variation of the sari
with reduced width, about one meter wide. When worn it extends just below the knees, and is worn over pyjamas for dance practice. In common usage, a long skirt teamed with a blouse and a veil worn across the left shoulder, resembling a sari
is also called half sari
in Western music
, the smallest distance from one note
to the next (for example, on the piano), or the distance from one swarastaana
to the next. s to r1, r1 to r2, m1 to m2, etc. are all half-steps. Two half-steps are equivalent to a whole-step
. Half steps in Western notes
are, for example,(...)
a rarely-used gamaka
which uses the sound hoom (oo as in good) repeatedly
The Swan’s Wing is indicated thus: From Pathāka hasthā
position, bend the middle three fingers out.
It is one of the Asamyutha hastha mudhra
. It means the Swan’s bill. In Bharathanātyam, in the Hamsāsya hasthā
, the thumb and the index finger touch each other at the tips, while the other fingers are straight, separated and stretched. It is also known as Chin mudhra
He is the god of strength. He is a monkey faced God in Hindhu
It is another name for Lord Śhiva
It is another name for Lord Viṣhṇu
- harmonic minor
in Western classical, a scale that is equal to the minor scale
but that the 7th note
is increase by a half-step
in both the ascending scale and descending scale. This converts N2 to N3, making this scale equivalent to gowri manOhari
often used in Western music
and other music
forms, it is the practice of singing in parts, where each person has a part (often of different pitches) and sings or plays that part. The sounds become blended together though of different pitch to give a uniform, beautiful sound. Harmony
- Hastha, Hastha Mudhra
Hastha means hand in Sanskrit
. It is a symbolic gesture using the hands and fingers, used for decoration as well as expressing meaning in Bharathanātyam.
, or feeling, of laughter in a song or raaga, seen in raagas such as mOhanam, kEdaaram, and hamsadwani
Humour or laughter, one of the nine emotions in Bharathanātyam. The others are Śhringāra (love, eros), Vīra
(valor, heroism), Karuṇa
(sadness), Adhhbhutha (awe, amazement), Raudhra
(revulsion), and Shāntha (peace).
- hecu staayi varisai
Originally the word indicated the people and culture indigenous to the Indian sub-continent. Now it has come to indicate those who practice the faith of Hindhuism
Way of life
the primary language of India. Few Carnatic
songs are in this language
the main system of Classical music
performed in North India
A vocal exercise in Carnatic music
where the vowel extension "hūm" is used and all the swaras are sung in this vowel.
- Ida Nādi
One of the main energy channels running on the left side of the spine from the base of the spine (Mūlādhāra chakra
) to the center of the forehead (Ājna chakra
She is the goddess of wealth. She is the wife of Lord Viṣhṇu
He is the king of Gods.
It means The Moon.
the 1st cakra
, with melakartas that contain M1, R1, and G1, comprising melakarta
the opposite of isai
, it is a Tamil
term for sounds that are not beautiful and are disorderly
- irangu niral
- iraTTai kOvai varisai
- iraTTai kural
- iravu paNN
term for music
, a system with beautiful sounds in an orderly fashion which is pleasant to hear
It is the direction of North – east.
- Īshvara prāṇidhāna
Surrender to the divinity with-in us
He is the supreme lord. Lord Śhiva
is also known as Īśhwara
which involves a slide or glide from one note
a musical form (sabhaa gaanam
), a type of song that is usually a love story with the characters naayaki (heroine), naayaka (hero), and tOzhi (close friend) and performed as classical dance (bharatanaaTyam). The compositions are often lively in madhyama kaala
, expressing love through colloquial(...)
means 'Master/ Lord' (nātha) of the 'World, Universe' (Jagath). He is The Lord of the world. He is another form of Lord Viṣhṇu
. The oldest and most famous Jagannāth deity is established in Puri, in Orissa. The temple of Jagannāth in Puri is regarded as one of the sacred(...)
- jakkini Daru
or song where the first part of the saahityam is full of jatis and THEN the words are given. It also contains madhyama kaala
prayOgams. Sometimes apoorva taaLams like guru jhampa
- janaka raaga
- janaka raaga lakshaNa geetam
- Janaka rāga
This is another name for the Meḷa Karthā Rāga
. A Meḷa rāgam also known as a parent rāga
must have all the seven notes
in both the ārōhaṇa and avarōhaṇa. The notes
must be the same in both scales and must follow the regular order. The Thāra Sa
must be present in both scales. There are a total(...)
- janTa varisai
a series of musical phrases for early musical practice, in which swaras are sung in pairs, ex: ss rr gg mm pp dd nn SS. Also called iraTTai kOvai varisai
- Jānu Shīrshāsana
Head to Knee Posture
a raaga derived from a melakarta
, but which does not have the exact characteristics of the melakarta
. It may be missing swaras (varja), have a crooked scale (vakra
), have additional notes
from another melakarta
), or even have some small change in the way it is performed
- janya raaga lakshaNa geetam
- Janya rāga
This refers to a rāga
that has been derived from a Méla rāga
. A janya rāga
may not have all the swarās from its parent rāga
. Its ārōhanam and avarōhanam may not follow an orderly fashion and sometimes swarās from other rāgās may feature in a janya rāga
It refers to an embroidery using metal threads, usually silver, gold, or copper and often for decoration of borders of the cloth.
Drum syllables, or sequences of drum syllables, describing units of percussion. Also sequences of syllables intoned by the dance conductor (naṭṭuvanār
), during abstract dance passages
One of the qualifiers with which a thāḷa
or rhythmic meter is identified. Jāthi
corresponds to the number of beats in the laghu
, and is also known as chāpu
The Jathis (rhythmic syllables) are combined with swaras (musical notes
) in a particular raga and thāḷa
. It is similar to a Swarajathi
but does not contain any Sāhithyam. Only the names of notes
are sung. Jathiswarams are used in dance recitals. Some jathiswarams are found in chauka kāla
a phrase used in place of swaras or words (alongside them), usually such as dheem, takita, taam, tOm, often used in tillaanaas and dance-related songs
a type of abhyaasa gaanam, similar to a swarajati
, often called a swara-pallavi
. It has no saahityam at all, but instead combines jatis. It is used often in dance. Some jatiswarams are in cowka kaalam or are raagamaalikas
They are one of the special compositions that are sung in the concerts. This type of song usually tells a love story. The Nāyaka
, Nāyika and the Sakhi
feature in Jāvalis. Jāvalis are performed at Bharathanātyam recitals. The compositions are usually found in Madhyama Kāla
and use colloquial(...)
word for anniversary and often refers to celebrations of the birthdays of religious figures and deities.
swaras that are vital to a raaga (give it life). For saavEri the jeeva
swaras are ri, ma, and da
- Jhampa thāḷa
This is one of the Saptha Thālās. Jhumpa thālam has the angās Laghu Anudhrutham
and Dhrutham (1 U 0). Mishra Jāthi
Jhumpa Thālam consists of 10 beats. The number of beats in the thālam will vary according to the Laghu
This Means joint. It is one of the basic exercises in Carnātic music
. It involves double and triples of a single swara
. These should be sung with force and emphasis from the first note
to the second: sa sa
ri ri ga ga etc. The use of one plain note
followed by a forceful one.
This could also be spelt as Gnyāna. It means Knowledge and wisdom.
- Jnāna yoga
is the path of knowledge that leads to an experience of absolute truth.
- just intonation
- kaakali nishaadam
ni (of 3), N3 (the note
just below high Sa
), which corresponds to B natural in the Western key of C.
movement of 16 beats, with a beat (4 counts), a wave upward (4 counts), a wave to the left (4 counts), and a wave to the right (4 counts). Its symbol is + and it is equivalent to 4 maattirais
this refers to the speed at which a song or portion of a song (or swaras) is performed. For singing in 1st speed, there can be 1 note
per beat in practice (4 notes
in concerts and when singing kritis). In second speed
, there are 2 notes
per beat in music
practice and 8 in concerts, in 3rd(...)
a pause or sustaining of a note
the first line in the katapayaadi
formula, which has 9 letters ka kha ga gha nga ca cha ja jha nya
- kaisiki nishaadam
the second ni of 3, N2, which corresponds to Bb (B flat
) in the Western key of C.
It means fine arts.
It means time. The tempo of the rhythm. It is independent of the thāḷa
pattern or rhythmic meter. Three speeds are used for dance: slow (viḷamba
), medium (madhya
), and fast (dhrutha
), each double the speed of the previous.
a fractional unit of an aksharakaala, the number of beats per movement of a taaLa
, or the number of swaras per kriyaa
. Thus if aadi taaLa
is sung in kalai
2 in 2nd speed (kaala
), it still has 4 swaras per beat but instead of eight beats there are now 16 (each movement doubled). It can be Eka
- Kālapramāṇa swarāvaḷi
Exercises in classical vocal music
, which enable the student to learn to hold notes
over long interval of time and gives the student ability to culture the voice and Shruthi.
It's a traditional martial art form from Kerala, where artist move with a grace of dancers at the same time wielding deadly weapons in their hands.
is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of the cycle of yugas described in the Indian scriptures
The last of the avathāras, Kalki
is expected to appear at the end of Kali Yuga
, the current time period. This avathāra will appear seated on a white horse with a sword blazing like a comet. It is believed that he shall finally come to destroy the wicked, to start new creation and to restore(...)
- kalpana sangeetam
- kalpanaa swaram
the part of a performance or song when swaras are improvised to fit the taaLa
and return to the pallavi or first part of another section of the song. It is usually done at the end of a song, but may also be done in the middle. The main performer and non-percussion accompanists take turns doing(...)
- kalpita sangeetam
- kampa vihina raaga
a South Indian language spoken especially in the state of KarnaaTaka
. Many South Indian songs are in this language
is a combination of two Sanskrit
' meaning 'skull,' and 'bhāthi
' meaning 'light' or 'lustre.' This breathing exercise is done to cleanse the body. Kapālabhāthi
is essentially performed to clear the respiratory passages by forceful expiration.
It means wood apple. It is a favourite of Lord Ganesha. In dance, it is a single hand gesture.
It is Samyutha hastha mudhra
. It means pigeon. When the Anjali Mudhrā
is made to bulge at the knuckles of the palm we get the kapōtha hastha. In this gesture the palms touch each other only at the tips and the base of the palm. The centre is cupped.
It denotes the actions of the individual.
- Karma yoga
is the path of service, for in this path, it is believed that the present situation is based on one’s past actions. Karma Yoga
is the path of action, service to others, mindfulness, and remembering the levels of our being while fulfilling our actions or karma
in the world. Karma
, it means Ear. It is also name of one of the greatest warriors, Karna who is one of the central characters in the epic Mahābhārata.
one of the states of India, this is where the name karnaaTic or carnatic
came from, because many prominent composers, such as Purandara Daasa came from this state. The word is still used to refer to the Carnatic
- karnaaTaka sampradaayam
It is one of the states in the southern part of India. The capital is Bengaluru (Spelt & pronounced Bangalore till recently) and the language spoken is Kannada
. Many a famous composer hailed from this state.
- karpanai isai
- karpanai swaras
- Karthari aḍavu
It is an Asamyutha hastha. Karthari means scissors. From the ardhapathāka hasthā
, the little and the ring fingers are pressed against the thumb, while the index and the middle fingers are stretched to show a scissor.
The sentiment of pathos is called Karuṇa rasa
. It is generally caused by separation or loss of something.The others are Śhringāra (love, eros), Vīra
(valor, heroism), Adhhbhutha (awe, amazement), Raudhra
(fear)and Shāntha (peace).
(or feeling) of kindness and generosity in a song or raaga, found in the raagas sahaanaa, naadanaamakriyaa, and kaanaDaa
One of the single hand gestures in dance. Kataka means a Bracelet or link.
It is a double hand gesture in Dance. It indicates Crossed katakāmukha
. When both the hands are crossed holding the kaṭakāmukha mudrā, we get the kaṭakāvardhana hastha.
the formula used to determine the number of a melakarta
from its name or vice versa. The first two syllables of the melakarta
name are used, each representing a digit, and the number that results is reversed to give the melakarta
number. It has four lines
, the first line starting with ka(...)
is one of the eight forms of Indian classical dance and originated from Uttar Pradesh, India. This dance form traces its origins to the nomadic bards of ancient northern India, known as Kathakas, or storytellers. The term Kathak
is derived from Kathā meaning story.
is a classical dance form of India that originates from Kerala, the south-western part of India. It is a unique form of dance with a marvellous combination of elaborate gestures, picturesque costumes, grand make up and vigorous music
is a group presentation in which(...)
the pitch at which a performer performs. A kaTTai
of 5, for example, is G in Western notation
- Katthi aḍavu
Katthi refers to a knife in Tamil
. The dancer, in this Aḍavu
swiftly jumps from the Aramanḍi
to Garuḍamanḍalam. The hand movements in this Aḍavu
look like the piercing of a knife, and therefore its name.
It means cot. In Bharathanātyam, it is indicated as follows: Hold the simhamukha hastha in both the hands at chest level and turn the hand so
that the palm is facing upwards. Join the tips of the middle and ring fingers of both the hands.
It means poet.
It is a Sanskrit
literary style. It means poetry.
a sabhaa gaanam
, a Carnatic
song, usually of a devotional nature (vaidika gaanam
). It has a saahitya
to praise god or beg pardon, sometimes connected with puraanic incidents. The saahitya
is more important in keertanas and it is said to have existed before the kriti
. It has a pallavi, may or(...)
- keezh staayi
- keezh staayi varisai
He is one of the nine planets in Indian astrology. He is the serpent tailed Lord of the Descending/South lunar node.
- khaNDa caapu
a caapu taaLa
with 5 beats (2 + 3), a beat and a wave, counted as taka takiTa
- Khanḍa chāpu
This refers to a Chāpu
thāla with 5 beats (2 + 3). A beat constitutes the angās in the thāla.
- Khanḍa Jāthi
It is a Samyutha hastha mudhrā
. It means a cord / Friendship. Hold the Muṣhṭi mudhrā
in both the hands and release the little finger. When both the little fingers interlock each other we get the kīlaka
An expressive Bharathanātyam item, usually devotional in sentiment, with lyrics in praise of a particular deity. A medium tempo item with some abstract dance elements included for interest. The sāhithya
which plays an important role in this form is usually in praise of god or one that(...)
- kOlaaTTa Daru
that is a song sung during the time of dance
- kONangi Daru
a rhythmic phrase of several taaLa
cycles, usually having a repetition of 3 within it, which may be sung, played, or performed on a percussion instrument
- Korvai aḍavu
- kOvai varisai
an incarnation of Lord Vishnu (preserver of the universe), known as a cowherd, beautiful flautist, a great King of Dwaaraka, and for his mischief around the gopis, his many female admirers
appeared in the Dwāpara Yuga
along with his brother Balarāma
is one of the most worshipped deities in the Hindu faith. He played a huge role in the battle of Kurukshétra and helped the Pandavās defeat the Kauravās. He is also a significant character in the epic the(...)
a type of sabhaa gaanam
, one of the most important types of songs with broad scope for neraval
, kalpanaa swaras. They have a pallavi, anupallavi
and at least 1 caraNam
(or may have a samaashTi caraNa
) with the same or different swara
patterns in the caraNas. They can be either about God or(...)
meaning action, it is any single movement within an anga, such as a beat or a movement of a finger, or a wave. Thus a khanda jaati laghu
will have 5 kriyaas
- Kruthi / Krithi
Kruthi is the format of a musical composition typical to Carnātic music
, an Indian classical music
style. Krithis form the backbone of any typical Carnātic music
concert, and is the longer format of a Carnātic music
the smallest unit of time, the time a needle takes to pierce one petal in a pile of 100 lotus petals together (also kanam
Those who were into defence and warfare were called Kshatriyas in the past. Today it refers to those born in the community which once engaged in warfare.
is the classical dance form from the South-Eastern state of Andhra Pradesh. It derives its name from the village of Kuchelapuram, a small village about 65 kms from Vijayawāda. It is known for its graceful movements and its strong narrative dramatic character.
- Kudhitta meṭṭaḍavu
Kudhi means to jump and meṭṭu is to strike the floor gently on the toes with the heels raised up.
A women's folk dance from Tamizh Nāḍu, done in a circle with clapping.
- Kunchitha pādha
A foot position in dance where the foot is bent or curved.
The supreme Power, the primordial energy, which lies coiled at the base of the spine, in every human being.
- kural (1)
- kural (2)
- kural kaikilai
- kural taram
- kural tutam
- kural uzhai
- kural vilari
A group dance by women, interpreting literary or poetic compositions typically on the theme of fulfilment of the love of a girl for her beloved.
This is the second incarnation of Lord Viṣhṇu
. As the dévās(gods) and the asurās(demons) fought over the nectar of immortality, Viṣhṇu
took the form of a tortoise that held the mountain Mandhara which was used as a churning staff.
A loose shirt worn by men and women, reaching to just above the knees or somewhat below the knees, and worn over dhothis, churidhārs, salwārs or other pants.
It is one of the footwork variations in Bharatanātyam. Kuṭṭanam means the striking of the ground with the foot.
movement that involves a beat and then counts on the fingers starting from the little finger and moving inward (when the counts are more than five the counts go
back to the little finger). They can be tisra (1 + 2), catusra
(1 + 3), khaNDa
(1 + 4), mishra
(1 + 6), or sankeerna
(1 + 8).(...)
an essential characteristic of a raaga. There are 13 such lakshaNas for every raaga (see triOdasa lakshaNa
means grammar/rules. Apart from being good in creativity, the student should also strictly adhere to the grammar and rules of the music
- lakshaNa geetam
She is the Goddess of wealth and the wife of Lord Viṣhṇu
the female or feminine aspect of dance and music
(usually associated with the goddess Paarvati). Its complement is taaNDava
It refers to abstract dance with graceful, lyrical and tender movements, usually ascribed to feminine qualities.
, it means like beauty, loveliness or grace.
the speed or tempo, another name for taaLa
or rhythm. It has 3 forms, vilambita (slow), madhya
(medium), and druta (fast) laya
- Laya sadhaka
means rhythm and sādhana
is practice. These exercises are designed to strentghten the rhythm ability of the student, whether a musician or dancer.
are placed over swaras or words to indicate that they should be performed faster. A single line doubles the speed of the swaras, and a double line quadruples the speed of the swaras. (see also vertical line
- ma (1)
- ma (2)
the 5th combination in a cakra
, corresponding to the 5th raaga within a cakra
, which has D2 and N3 (dinu
meaning path, there are 6 ways to render taaLa
correctly (the shanmaargams
): dakshina, vartika and citra maargams, used only in pallavi, and citratara, citratama and aticitratama maargams used in kritis. One of the 13 lakshaNas of a raaga
meaning mother. Shruti is often called the Maataa
, the mother of music
The middle tempo of the three used in Bharathanātyam. Madhya
is double the speed of viḷamba
, and half the speed of dhrutha
- madhya laya
medium speed or tempo
- madhya staayi
the middle octave
(as opposed to the lower or higher ones), also known as sama mandilam
. This is the octave
in which most of a performance will take place. Madhya staayi
swaras usually have no dots accompanying them, and are often lowercase
originally composed of 3 beats and a wave, but which has become aadi taaLa
that begins after 3/4 beat
Of human or ordinary stature; One of the classifications of characters in Bharathanātyam. Others are utthama
(divine) and adhhama
- madhyama kaala
- the 1st speed or kaala
, with 4 swaras per beat
- madhyama shruti
singing without the pa, so
that the tambura
or shruti box
is set to play only sa
, ma, and Sa
(instead of s P S). This can be done with raagas that have no pa but which have a ma in their scales. In singing, ma is taken instead of sa
as the basic note
- maguDa saahitya
- maguDa swara
A major Sanskrit
epic of ancient India, immensely important to Indian culture and a key source of themes for classical dance compositions.
- major diatonic scale
the predominant scale used in Western music
, with approximately the notes
of shankaraabharaNam. It can begin at any pitch, but for example, a starting pitch (sa
) that begins with the note
F (shruti of 4) is F major. Thus C major, F major, D major etc. will all be in the same raaga
- major scale
a South Indian language, spoken especially in the Indian state Kerala. Some compositions are written in MalayaaLam
is played as the first musical item, by the Nādhaswaram (a wind instrument), during temple festivals before the temple deity is taken out in procession. A Mallari
is performed in the first three speeds (Tisra naḍai
), and is usually set in Raga Gambhīra Nāṭṭai. The other Ghana Pancha(...)
- Manḍala bhedhas
The positions or postures of the feet can either be static or dynamic. The static postures are called Manḍala Bhedhas
. There are 10 variations in Manḍala bhedha
- mandra staayi
one of the 13 lakshaNas of a raaga
a raaga suitable for singing invocations and benedictory verses (aarati, mangaLam
), such as sowraashTram, shuruTTi, madyamaavati, or yadukula kaambhOji
- Maṅgaḷa / maṅgaḷam
Benediction. A short benedictory item of music
or dance performed at the end of the last performance of the day.
a song that is an invocation to the gods thanking them for a good concert and to remove the evil eye and any bad karma
caused by improper singing of raagas (for example, singing a morning raaga
at an evening concert, etc.). It is sung at the end of a concert
a language that uses a combination of other languages such as Sanskrit
, Telegu, KannaDa
, or other ancient languages, used almost exclusively in compositions and not in actual conversation
It is one of the classical dances of India from the state of Maṇipūr. Maṇipūri
is a very graceful form of dance. It has very little facial expressions but its body movements are beautiful and graceful.
, the word refers to Cupid: the God of Love.
- manOdharma sangeetam
literally creative music
(also kalpana sangeetam
), as opposed to created (kalpita) music
. It is created by the artist instantaneously on stage without precise preparation beforehand. There are 5 types of this creative, improvisational music
(usually improvised during the performance, requiring(...)
Subtle sound vibrations, which through repetitions expands one's awareness or consciousness.
The sequence of items in a Bharathanātyam recital. The literal meaning in Sanskrit
is ‘the way or path’.
- Mārjari āsana
This is a pose in Yoga
which resembles a cat. The cat is called mārjara in Sanskrit
This word in Sanskrit
indicates the wind.
The son of the Wind God. Another name for Hanumān
, it means Fish. In yoga
, we have a posture resembling the fish. In dance, when the right palm is placed over the back of the left palm, while both hold the Ardhhachandra
The name comes from the Sanskrit
which means "fish". Since the posture of the body looks like that of a fish, it is called the Fish pose.
The first incarnation of Lord Viṣhṇu
, who took the form of a fish. Mathsya
means fish and avathāra means incarnation.
- Matya Thāḷa
It is one of the seven main thāḷas in carnatic music
system. It starts with a Laghu
and is followed by 1 Dhrutam and. 1 Laghu
It means Peacock. It is a single hand gesture-asamyutha hastha – in Bharathanātyam, it is described as: From the thripathāka hastha, the ring finger and the tip of the thumb touch each other while the other fingers are held straight without any gap.
- mela mnemonic
a useful set of phrases to remember the order of the raagas within a cakra
. The combinations are pa (dana
, 1), sri
, 2), go
, 3), bhu
, 4), ma (dinu
, 5), and sha
, 6). Their numbers are according to the katapayaadi
a main raaga, consisting of all seven notes
in order in both the descending and ascending scales. There are 72 such raagas. To qualify as a mElakarta
, a raaga must have all 7 swaras ascending and descending, they must be in the regular order, they must be of the same type (swarastaana
- melivu mandila varisai
- melivu mandilam
- melodic minor
the singing of a tune, without harmony
or part singing, where all voices and instruments perform the same relative pitch (a pitch or its octave
- mElstaayi varisai
- men's shruti
usually a man's shruti is at a pitch of 1 to 1 1/2 (equivalent to C or C# in Western notation)
in the Western do re mi
system, the 3rd note
, equivalent to ga
- midday raaga
a raaga suitable for performing in the middle of the day (around noon to 1 pm), such as madyamaavati, maNirangu, or shree raaga
- minor scale
the second most common scale in Western music
, it is the equivalent of kharaharapriyaa raaga. It corresponds to the major scale
by shift of sa
downwards by 2 notes
(4 swarastaanas, sa
to d2), or a minor third
. It is also called the Aeolian mode
of the major scale
- minor third
in Western music
, the interval between 4 notes
or swarastaanas. This would be, for example, the jump from s to g2
- mishra caapu
of 7 beats, 3 plus 4, with the sound taka takiTa, formed by two quick beats (2) with the back of the hand, a pause (1) and then two slow beats (2 + 2)
using a mixture of different types of gamakas
a Western classical concept, in which at least one of the 7 notes
of the major scale
is changed (raised or lowered) to create a new scale. In this way, different scales can be formed, creating a subset of scales similar to raagas. There are many modes. The Aeolian mode
of the major scale
such a raagam's tonic note
) can be shifted to another note
(such as ri, ga, ma, pa, da, or ni) to give a different raaga. For example, dhanyaasi is a moorcanaakaaraka
raaga, because its ni can be taken as sa
, and if its sa
is taken as ri, ri taken as ga, etc. it becomes salagabhairavi (a(...)
that involves using the proper shaking required in the raaga that is being performed
- morning raaga
a raaga suitable for performing in the morning (6-9 am) after sunrise (after the early morning
raagas), such as bilahari, kEdaaram, or dhanyaasi
- mridanga yati
- opposite of Damaru yati
, this is a rhythmic pattern of swaras or words which is narrow at the ends and wide in the middle (a combination of srotovaaha and gOpucca yatis). ex: pdn-mpdn-gmpdn-mpdn-pdn
A double-sided Indian drum used mainly in South India, in Carnātic music
. It is the main percussion instrument used in Carnātic concerts and is known as the “King of percussion” instruments. It is used as an accompaniment, as the lead instrument in thāḷa
vādhya ensembles and is also played as(...)
- mudal naDai
A symbolic gesture using the hands and fingers in thanthra
. This term has also been used to refer to hand gestures in Bharathanātyam, where they are used for decoration as well as expressing meaning. Hastha mudhrās or hand gestures are the most important element of dance.
- the signature(s) a composer may use in compositions, woven into the song. It may or may not have anything to do
with the composer's name. Not all composers have mudras. For example, Dikshitar's mudra
which involves humming, as in mmmm...
- muktaanga kampita raagas
raagas in which all swaras can be sung with kampita gamaka
, also known as sarva swara gamaka
vaarika raagas. These include kalyaaNi, mOhanam, and tODi
- muktaayi swara
, it means a flower bud. In single hand gestures, Asamyutha hastha, when all fingers are brought together and touch each other at the tip, we get the mukula
- Mūladhāra Chakra
It is the lowest energy centre in the human body where the kundalini Shakti (serpent power) resides. It is situated in the perennial floor in men and the cervix in women.
- munnar baagam
also known as Lord Subramanya or Shanmuga, he is a son of Lord Shiva
(destroyer of the Universe), famous for his quick quips as a young boy and for his perseverance and love for music
. He emerged from the forehead (fire from the third
eye) of Shiva
and was raised by 6 young women Shiva
It means Fist in Sanskrit
. From Shikhara hastha,if you place the thumb on the four fingers, it is the muṣhṭi
gesture in Dance.
English, from the Greek word MOUSA, for Muses, music
was thought to be inspired by 3 Muses. However, music
is thought to originate in India because the Greek Strabo says that the famous scientist and mathematician Pythagoras learned music
- musical force
a force which uses breath and sound to add emphasis to a note
, for example to the second note
of an identical pair (ss') or to a note
in a string of notes
(ni in pdn'd)
- Muthuswami Dhikṣhithar
One of the Carnātic music
trinity, Muthuswāmi Dhīkṣhitar was a master of the Thāḷa
system. He is the only composer to have krithis in all the seven basic Thāḷas of Carnatic Music
. For their Rāga Bhāva
, grandeur of the Sāhithya
and philosophical content, Muthuswāmi Dhīkṣhitar’s krithis remain(...)
, Muzhu- Complete. Mandi- Squat. From the aramanḍi
position, squat into a sitting position. The balance is placed on the balls of the feet with the heels pointed up. The pelvis should rest on the heels. The knees should point outward and should be off the floor. The back should be(...)
- Muzhumanḍi Prenkhaṇa
Prenkhaṇam indicates Swing. First, sit in the Muzhumandi position. The right leg is then outstretched to the right with the toes pointing up. This position can also be held with the legs the other way round.
that involves swelling a note
in volume and roundness, like a crescendo
- Naada Brahmam
Brahmam is god, and naadam
is sound, so
god is often considered the same as music
or even oli
, or any sounds that are orderly, beautiful and pleasant
refers to the tempo at which a song is sung, especially of how many aksharas are in a beat. Tishra naDai
means that in each beat, there are 3 swaras or aksharas. Not to be confused with gati
• In Bharatanatyam, the term 'Nadai
' means to walk. Hence, this aḍavu
involves walking either sideways, to the front, backwards or diagonally, while employing various hand movements. Owing to its simplicity in execution, it is not practiced like the other aḍavus. This aḍavu
is used at the(...)
Energy channels in the body
- Nādishodhana Prāṇāyāma
Alternate Nostril breathing technique
This is a hastha mudhra
used to denote Nāgabhandha or Twining Snakes. The nāgabandha
is placed at chest level.
- nalayira divya prabhandam
a type of sabhaa gaanam
which is a collection of 4000 hymns composed by 12 Vaishnava saints (Pogai Alwar, Bhutatalwar, Peialwar, Perialwar, Tirumazhisai Alwar, Tirupanalwar, Tirumangai Alwar, TinDaradipodi Alwar, Nammalwar, Madurakavi Alwar, KulasEkara Alwar, and AaNDaaL and compiled by(...)
The most popular form of greeting in India, especially the elders, is to say Namasthe with the hands joined at the chest level. It is also used at the time of farewell.
I bow to you.
Nandhi or Nandhikéshwara, is the lord of joy. He is Śhiva
’s vehicle and embodies inner strength, acquired through control over violence and physical strength. He is Śhiva
and Pārvathi’s gatekeeper. Some purāṇas state that Nandhi was born out of the right side of Viṣhṇu
and resembled Śhiva
He is the fourth incarnation of Lord Viṣhṇu
. He is half man and half lion.
god of dance (bharatanaaTyam), who dances the taanDavam
and shakes the worlds when he dances. An incarnation of Shiva
, he is said to have killed demons by dancing upon their heads
The term 'Natarāja
' means 'King of Dancers' (In Sanskrit
, Nata means dance; Rāja means king). A form of the Hindhu
, whose divine dance creates and destroys the universe. Natarāja
is most often depicted through a bronze statue and is popularly used as a symbol of Indian culture.
In Bharatanātyam, Nāṭṭu means to stretch. From the basic Aramanḍi
position, one leg is stretched outward either to the side or to the front striking the floor with the heel and is brought back to the Aramanḍi
One who wields the cymbals/Thāḷam and conducts the performance; one who does Naṭṭuvāṅgam
The practice or art of reciting rhythmic syllables and striking cymbals on particular beats that follow the foot work of the dancer; The art of conducting Bharathanātyam, a dance recital.
- natural minor
The dramatically oriented aspects of dance are called Nātya
, including spoken dialogue and mime, to convey meaning and enact narrative.
- Nātya Śhāsthra
A scripture attributed to the sage Bharatha that deals with theatre arts and dance. The Nātya Śhāsthra
is about 2,000 years old. Written by Sage Bharatha.
- Nātya vedha
According to religious history, the gods and goddesses pleaded with Lord Brahma
to create a Védha which would make it simple for the common man to understand. Thus, Brahma
created the fifth
Védha known as the Nātya
Védha. It is believed that he took Pathya (words) from the Rig Vedha
This the basic hand position in Bharatanātyam.
Nauka in Sanskrit
means a boat. Naukāsana
, helps reduce the size of the belly due to the contraction of the abdomen from both the sides.
- Nāva / Nouka
meaning 9 planets, the navagraha
kritis are 9 songs, each composed on a different planet. The most famous are by Dikshitar
- Nāvāsana / Noukāsana
a raaga in which the swaroopam
is brought out both by aalaapanai and taanam
, for example tODi, bhairavi
, kaambhOji, shankaraabharaNam, and kalyaaNi
singing a single line or phrase from a song with varying tunes. This is usually done in the middle of a song, taking a particular phrase and expanding it, while still keeping the words split properly. It may also be performed in various raagas as a raagamaalika
the second cakra
, which has 6 melakartas that contain M1, R1 and G2, numbered 7-12
- ni (1)
- ni (2)
- night raaga
a raaga meant to be sung only at night time, from 7-10 pm. This includes raagas such as neelaambari and kEdaara gowLa
It means half closed in Sanskrit
. It is one of the Driṣhṭi bhedhas. The eyes are kept half closed in this variation.
refers to a higher pitch of swaras relative to one another, an ancient Tamil
term from Silappadigaaram
- nirai kaikilai
- nirai taram
- nirai tutam
- nirai uzhai
- nirai vilari
Bhaya indicates fear and with the prefix ’ni’ it indicates ‘without fear’.
The south west direction is Nirruthi
. In the Vedhic times, it was depicted as a female goddess. Later it denotes a male god in charge of the directions. In dance, it can be depicted as follows: Hold khatva in the left hand and śhakata in the right hand.
ni, the 7th swara
, corresponding to ti
of the Western do re mi
system. There are three types of ni, shuddha
, kaakali, and kaisiki
as opposed to sasabda
, these taaLa
movements make sounds (beats, for example the anudrutam). It is found in sapta taaLas
It consists of the five "observances": purity, contentment, austerity, study, and the surrender to god.
or "English note
" is a composition usually composed in the raaga shankaraabharaNam and created with swaras (some also have saahitya
). They are called such because the melody
sounds very Western. In fact, some are simply Western tunes with Indian lyrics
in Western music
, there are 7 basic notes
: A B C D E F G, which can be increased by a half-step
, #) or decreased by a half-step
, b) to give the full range
. A B C D E F G are the white keys on the piano, while intervening notes
(A#=Bb, C#=Db, D3=Eb, F#=Gb, G#=Ab) form the(...)
Interpretive dance, using facial expressions, hand gestures and body movements to portray emotions and express themes is termed Nruthya
is the set of abstract dance movements with rhythm but without expression of a theme or emotion. It is also called pure dance.
- Nruttha Hasthas
A sub-set of the hasthas (hand gestures) that find use in nruttha
swaras on which a phrase in a kriti
in a certain raaga may end. sa
is a universal nyaasa swara
for any raaga. For saavEri, for example, nyaasa
swaras are ma, pa, and da
one of the 13 lakshaNas of a raaga that describes what nyaasa
swaras the raaga has
The way in which the name of the state of Orissa is pronounced in the native language.
The classical dance form which is from the state of Orissa. . It is the oldest surviving dance form in India on the basis of archaeological evidence.
The universal mantra; cosmic vibration of the universe
- one-fourth eDuppu
symbolized by a comma
, it is starting a song 1/4 beat after or before the samam
- one-half eDuppu
symbolized by a semicolon
; it is starting a song 1/2 beat after or before the samam
- pa (1)
- pa (2)
- pada varnam
that has rhythmic elements like a padam
, meant for classical dance. It has cowka kaala
(some madhyama kaala
) swaras suitable for footwork, and saahitya
for abhinayam at the muktaayi swaras as well as all the caraNas. Performed in aadi taaLa
, roopakam and others. Also called cowka(...)
- padajati varnam
which contains some jatis in it, often meant for classical dance
a particular type of musical form or composition (sabhaa gaanam
), meant for dance, that brings out the relationship of naayaka-naayaki (hero and heroine) as well as tOzhi (close friend) to tell important truths. The words are written through the mouth of the naayaka, naayaki or tOzhi,(...)
- Padha varṇam
This refers to a varnam
that has rhythmic elements like that of a padham
and that is meant for classical dance. It consists of chauka kāla
swaras suitable for footwork, and sāhithya
suitable for abhinaya
at the mukthāyi swaras as well as all the charaṇas. This is also called chauka varṇam
The deepest expressive item of Bharathanātyam,, narrating divine love or the pain of separation from the beloved, usually using the device of a nāyikā (heroine) talking to her sakhi
(friend), about her love for the nāyaka
(hero), symbolizing the human soul yearning for union with the divine.(...)
It is one of the Asamyutha hastha. It means lotus bud. Turn the hand so
that the palm is facing upwards. All the fingers are stretched and bent slightly to form the padmakośha hastha. It looks like holding a ball or a fruit.
It is one of the sitting postures in yoga
. In Sanskrit
, Padhma means lotus. This āsana
has been given a great importance as it is best suited for Prāṇāyāma
, Meditation & concentration. This excellent posture encourages proper breathing and foster physical stability.
the 3rd line in the katapayaadi
formula, with 5 letters, pa pha ba bha ma
- pagal paNN
name (in PaNN
system) for morning raagas
- Pāichal aḍavu
, Pāichal means to leap. In Sanskrit
, it is ‘Uthplavana
’. This Aḍavu
involves leaping movements, covering space either to the sides or front with horizontal or through vertical jumps.
- pallavi (1)
meaning sprout or bud (or leaf) in the comparison of a song with a tree, it is usually the first section of a song, which may be repeated again after the anupallavi
and caraNas. It is usually short (1-2 lines
- pallavi (2)
a musical form (sabhaagaanam) in which a phrase or line is taken in raagamtaanampallavi (RTP) for expounding the raaga and words, to do neraval
raagas whose scales range
only up to madhyastaayipancamam, without touching da, ni, or taarasa. It also refers to raagas such as naadataarangini, which have scales like spmrgrs - Spndpmgrs that return to the madhyastaayisa
pa, the 5th swara
, used as a drone note
along with sa
(a perfect fifth
). It has only one form like sa
and unlike the other swaras. It corresponds to so
in the Western do re mi
the standard shruti setting in which sa
is the basic note
, with pa being played along with sa
means 5 gems, referring to 5 songs set in ghanaraagas, they are 5 songs on a specific subject or deity. The most famous pancaratnakritis are by Tyaagaraaja
the forerunner of raaga, before the split of Hindustani and Carnatic
raaga. It consisted of audava, shaadava
types with bhaashaanga
types as well (with anyaswaras). Formerly there were 103, with 23 used in TEvaram
It is a term often used by Vedāntic philosophers about the "attainment of the ultimate goal". It is a Sanskrit
word - para meaning beyond and Brahman
meaning universal self or spirit. Parabrahman
is That which is beyond Brahman
- The self-enduring, eternal, self-sufficient cause of all(...)
The married woman in love with another man. One of numerous categories of nayikās, or heroines, in Bharathanātyam.
He is the sixth of the ten incarnations of Lord Viṣhṇu
and is the son of a Brahmin
father Jamadhagni and mother Reṇukā in Hindhu
mythology. In Daśhāvathāra hasthas he is depicted as an angry man holding the axe. Hold Muṣhṭi
hastha in left hand and Ardhhapathāka
hastha in the right hand to(...)
- Paraval aḍavu
Paraval in Tamil
means to spread. The feet are spread from the position of Aramanḍi
It is one of the Śhiro bhedhas (head variations). It means turning. The face is turned away either to the right side or the left side. Alternately, the head is also moved from a side to side like a pattern of alphabet S.
It is one of the Śhiro bhedas(head variations). It means moving widely. The head is moved from side to with ears touching the shoulders alternately.
It is one of the grīva bhedhas (neck variations). It means revolving round. Move the neck from side to side resembling the shape of a half moon.
- Parivruttha thrikonasana
Parivruttha means to turn around or revolve. Trikoṇa means thrī angles or a triangle. This is a revolving triangle posture.
- Pārṣhni pārshwagathi
It is one of the foot positions. Pārṣhni means Heel and Pārśhva means near/Side.
a. In Aramanḍi
b. In Samapādha
It is one of the Foot positions. Pārśhva means side and Sūchi means Triangle.
- Pārśhwasūchi Prenkhaṇa
It is one of the foot positions. Pārśhva means Side; Sūchi means Triangle; Prenkhaṇam means moving towards.
Back stretching posture
, paśchima means "west" or "back" or "back of the body", and utthāna
means "intense stretch" and āsana
means "posture" or "seat". It stretches the spine, shoulders, and hamstrings.
It is one of the Samyutha hastha. It means Bond or enmity. When both the hands holding the thāmrachūḍa
hastha are interlocked with one another with the index fingers, we get the pāśha
It is one of the Asamyutha hasthas. It means Flag. All the fingers are kept closer to each other with the tip of the thumb bent and placed at the base of the index finger.
author of the Yoga
Sutras and preacher of the eight-fold (Ashtānga) yoga
- perfect fifth
- perfect third
- Peri aḍavu
Periya means big. These steps are used to cover big space. This is also known as Usi aḍavu
. Usi means off beat.
- Piṅgala Nādi
- One of the main energy channels running on the right side of the spine from the base of the spine (Mooladhara chakra
) to the center of the forehead (Ajna chakra
movement which has 12 beats, a beat, then a wave to the left and a wave to the right. Its symbol is ^8.
name (in PaNN
system) for midday raagas
- poorvaangam (1)
the first four swaras S R G M of the octave
(as opposed to uttaraangam 1)
- poorvaangam (2)
the 36 melakartas (1-36) that use shuddhamadhyamam, the shuddhamadhyamammelakartas
It is one of the grīva bhedha
(neck variation). It means shaking. The neck is moved back and forth like the neck of a male pigeon.
It is one of the Dhriṣhṭi bhedhas. It means wide glance. The pupils are moved to the corner of the eyes from right to left and vice versa.
Vital energy force sustaining life and creation
It is a Sanskrit
word meaning "extension of the prāṇa
or breath“. That is "extension of the life force". The word is composed of two Sanskrit
, life force or vital energy, particularly, the breath, and "āyāma", to extend, draw out, restrain or control.
- meaning spreading out, it is a splitting of an anga into all of its possible component parts. For example, catusralaghu can be split the following ways:
2. U0 + U
3. 0 + 0
4. 0 + U + U
5. U + U0
6. U + 0 + U
7. U + U + 0
8. U + U + U + U
Taking a particular stance when shooting, also meaning extended towards the left.
The intermediate parts of the body, such as shoulders, stomach, thighs, and elbows. One of three groups into which body parts are classified for the assignment of movements. The others are the aṅgas
or major parts of the body, and upaṅgas
, which include the extremities and facial features.
the higher ma, M2, used in the second 36 melakartas and their janyas, which corresponds to F# of the Western key of C
using paired notes
in succession in the descending scale ex: Snnddp pm mg gr rs, often considered one of the most important gamakas
that is sung for introducing the actors and actresses of a musical play at the very beginning
a particular phrase that is characteristic of a raaga. It helps show the uniqueness of the raaga when performed and may also contain anyaswaras not present in the raaga scales
It is one of the foot positions used in