Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

  VOWELS  
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English


CONSONANTS
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti

Guru Gobind Singh Jayanthi is celebrated by the Sīkhs which marks the birth occasion of tenth and last Guru, Guru Gobindh Singh. He was born at Pāṭna Sāhib on December 22, 1666, (Poh Sudi Sapthmi). His birthday generally falls in December or January or sometimes twice within a year as it is calculated according to Hindu Bikrami Calendar, which is based on the lunar calendar. According to the Nānakśhāhi Calendar, the birthday of Guru Gobindh Singh Sahib falls annually on January 5.Gurupūrabs holds great importance in Sīkhism. In history, it can be seen that the Sīkhs had even sacrificed their lives for celebrating Gurupūrabs. Sīkhs gather and remember their Gurus & pay homage to the great Martyrs whatever the occasion may be. The passage of the procession is decorated with the birth-day celebrations & Gurpūrabs of Guru Sāhibs usually last for three days. Before the birth date of the Guru, Akhaṇḍ Pāṭh (continuous reading of Guru Granthh Sāhib) is held in the Gurudhwāra. Large processions (Nagarkīrthan) are conducted the day before the birthday. This is led by the Panj Pyāras (Five beloved ones) and the Pālki (Palanquin) of Śhrī Guru Granthh Sāhib and followed by groups of Kīrthani Jātha, various School bands and students, Gaṭka Parties (displaying mock-battle with the traditional weapons), and devotees singing hymns from Guru Granth Sahib in chorus. The passage of the procession is decorated with flags, flowers, religious posters, decorated gates and banners depicting various aspects of Sīkhism.

On the occasion of birthday, the Dhivān begins early in morning at about 4 or 5 a.m. with the singing of Asa-di-var and hymns from Guru Granthh Sāhib. At times it is also followed by Kathhā (discourse), religious and Sīkh Historical lectures and recitation of poems in praise of the Guru. Kīrthan-Dharbārs and Amruth Sanchār ceremonies are also performed in the Gurudhwāra hall. Kara Prasādh (sweet pudding) is distributed to the devotees which is followed by the community lunch (Lāngar) to all.

















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