Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

  VOWELS  
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English


CONSONANTS
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Sankhya Viśhiṣhṭa 2

Significance of Number Two

   
Numeral 2 References Brief explanation
Dhvaya The common pairs in human life are listed below: Jananam - Maraṇam Svargaha - Narakaha Prakruthi  - Puruṣha Sukham - Dhuhkham Pathihi – Pathni Dhakṣhiṇathaha – Vāmathaha Uchitham-Anuchitham     The following are the duos we commonly see in life:
  • Birth – Death
  • Heaven – hell
  • Nature – Human
  • Happiness – Sorrow
  • Husband - Wife
  • Right - Left
  • Right - Wrong
 
Dhvithīya The 2nd day of the Lunar Month (Is indicative of both the bright and dark fortnights of the month)  
  • The word in Samskruth means ‘the second one’. It is an adjective for all nouns in the second position.
  • Commonly, it is used to denote the second day of the fortnight in the almanac.
 
Dhvayākṣhara manthra Thāraka Nāma – the name that protects. RĀMA = RĀ from Nārāyaṇa and MA from Namah Śhivāya.
  • Hymns that protect are called Manthras.
  • The name of Rāma, who is the sixth incarnation of Lord Viṣhṇu is considered to be a two syllable sacred hymn that protects humans.
  • The letters are taken from the names of the divinities Viṣhṇu and Śhiva.
 
Dhvija 2nd Birth of a person, after Upanayanam - the sacred thread ceremony.
  • In the various compulsory rituals prescribed for a Hindhu, the sacred thread ceremony is very important as it was the criteria for initiation into student-hood, in the olden days.
  • It is taken as the second birth as it signifies a new stage in the person’s life.
 
Dhvividhhā Niṣhṭhā    Gnyāna yoga and Karma yoga - The Path of Knowledge and the Path of Action
  • People had to choose the path of either knowledge or action or both for themselves to fulfill their existence.
  • The Bhagavath Gīthā describes and prescribes these for different personalities to choose what suits them.
 
Dhvaya manthra   Śharaṇāgathi manthra: Hymns of surrender

1)Śhrīmannārāyaṇa charaṇou  Śharanam  prapadhye||   

2)Śhrīmathe Nārāyaṇāya namah||
These two hymns are said to be those about surrender to Lord Viṣhṇu.
  • This means –“I bow down to the feet of Nārāyaṇa (another name of Viṣhṇu)”.
  • This means – “Salutations to Nārāyaṇa
 
Dhvi The second one - Symbolism of Moon.   The Sun is the first among the stars in the Universe and the Moon occupies the second position, according to early and later Hindhu mythology.  
Dhvaitha siddhāntha           Dualism - Philosophy of Madhvāchārya One of the main schools in Indian philosophy is that of Dualism propagated by Madhva. The emphasis is on the concept that Āthma and Paramāthma, the Individual and the Supreme souls are two different entities.  
     
















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